10 Blockchain Challenges in 2024

Dec 14, 2023

As we progress into 2024, blockchain technology continues to revolutionize various industries, offering unprecedented opportunities in terms of security, transparency, and efficiency. However, its rapid evolution brings forth complex legal challenges, necessitating a nuanced understanding of both technology and law.

1. Regulatory Uncertainty

One of the primary legal challenges surrounding blockchain in 2024 is the lack of clear regulatory frameworks. Different jurisdictions have varied approaches towards blockchain applications, especially cryptocurrencies. This inconsistency poses significant challenges for businesses operating across borders, who must navigate a patchwork of regulations that are often conflicting or unclear.

2. Smart Contract Disputes

Smart contracts, self-executing contracts with the terms directly written into code, are a cornerstone of blockchain technology. However, their legal status remains ambiguous. Disputes can arise when outcomes enforced by smart contracts diverge from traditional legal interpretations, raising questions about enforceability, jurisdiction, and remedy in cases of error or fraud.

3. Intellectual Property Issues

Blockchain poses unique challenges in the realm of intellectual property (IP). For instance, non-fungible tokens (NFTs) have surged in popularity, raising questions about copyright ownership and transfer. Additionally, the decentralized and immutable nature of blockchain complicates traditional IP control mechanisms, such as removal of infringing content.

4. Data Privacy and Security

While blockchain is hailed for its security, it also raises significant data privacy concerns, especially in light of regulations like the GDPR. The immutability of blockchain can conflict with the right to be forgotten, and the public nature of some blockchains poses privacy risks. Ensuring compliance with data protection laws while leveraging blockchain's benefits remains a key challenge.

5. Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Know Your Customer (KYC)

The anonymity and cross-border nature of blockchain transactions create fertile grounds for money laundering and other illicit activities. Adhering to AML and KYC regulations is challenging for blockchain-based businesses, requiring sophisticated mechanisms to balance privacy with regulatory compliance.

6. Decentralization and Jurisdiction

Blockchain's decentralized nature complicates jurisdictional questions. Identifying the applicable law and jurisdiction in disputes involving a decentralized network that spans multiple countries is a complex task, making legal resolution in blockchain disputes particularly challenging.

7. Taxation Issues

Blockchain technology, particularly in the realm of cryptocurrencies, poses significant challenges for tax authorities worldwide. Determining how to classify and tax various blockchain transactions, including cryptocurrency trades, staking rewards, and DeFi (Decentralized Finance) income, remains a complex issue. Jurisdictions struggle to develop tax laws that can accommodate the unique characteristics of blockchain-based assets while ensuring fair and effective tax collection.

8. Cross-Border Enforcement and Cooperation

The global nature of blockchain networks often clashes with national legal systems, making enforcement of laws and regulations challenging. Legal actions taken in one jurisdiction may have limited impact on a decentralized network spanning multiple countries. This situation calls for international cooperation and harmonization of laws to effectively regulate and control blockchain activities, but achieving this remains a daunting task due to differing national interests and legal systems.

9. Liability in Decentralized Systems

As blockchain networks are decentralized, it becomes challenging to assign liability when things go wrong, such as in the case of smart contract failures or security breaches. The lack of a central authority or identifiable party responsible for the network complicates legal accountability. This issue raises questions about who should be held liable for damages or losses—developers, users, or perhaps the network itself?

10. Estate Planning and Succession

Blockchain assets, including cryptocurrencies and digital tokens, present unique challenges in estate planning and succession. Traditional estate laws are not well-equipped to handle the transfer of these digital assets upon the death of the owner. Issues such as accessing encrypted wallets, determining the value of digital assets, and ensuring they are passed on according to the owner's wishes are areas that require legal innovation and adaptation.


As blockchain technology continues to evolve in 2024, it presents a range of legal challenges that require innovative solutions. The dynamic interplay between technology and law necessitates continuous adaptation and collaboration between technologists, legal professionals, and regulators. Embracing these challenges will be crucial for harnessing the full potential of blockchain while ensuring legal compliance and protecting the rights of all stakeholders.